Chronic increase of ‘hidden’ homelessness in the countryside fuelled by cost-of-living crisis, ground-breaking report shows

  • A year-long study exposes a surge in rural rough sleeping since the pandemic has been worsened by the cost-of-living crisis
  • According to analysis of official statistics, rough sleeping in rural areas shot up 24% in just one year.
  • High housing costs in prosperous areas blamed for a ‘hidden homelessness’ crisis – with ‘shame and stigma’ keeping most vulnerable not recorded in official statistics

The countryside is battling a ‘hidden homelessness’ crisis driven by soaring housing costs and a gaping shortfall in local authority funding, a new report shows.

The true scale of the crisis is likely to be far higher than the official statistics. The year-long study, which included a survey of 157 frontline support workers, service providers, NGOs, and shelters, found an overwhelming majority thought rural homelessness was a serious problem that was getting worse. Key findings include:

  • 91% of respondents in rural areas have seen homelessness increase in the past five years;
  • 83% of respondents in rural areas said their job had become harder in the past five years;
  • 81% of respondents believe that rough sleeping is experienced differently in rural areas compared to urban areas.

The study, by academics at the University of Kent and the University of Southampton, on behalf of a coalition of rural charities, rural organisations (including the RSN) and housing associations, shows rural areas being paid a fraction of what they need to tackle homelessness in their communities.

Overall, rural local authorities are receiving 65% less in funding per capita through the Homelessness Prevention Grant than urban areas, who are themselves chronically underfunded.  The sharp discrepancy in financial aid, discovered in statistics released by the Department for Levelling Up, Housing and Communities, shows urban local authorities were paid £7.15, compared to just £2.50 paid to rural local authorities when calculated on a like-for-like basis.

Interviews with more than 40 people, including people who sleep rough and outreach workers in four rural locations, paint a striking picture of isolation and resilience.

People who experience homelessness in rural areas often sleep rough in farmland or woodland, making them much harder for outreach workers to find and support, and putting their life and health in jeopardy. Real life stories shared with the researchers included people digging trenches in the snow to sleep, going several days without food, being spat on, their tents set on fire, and muggings that resulted in brain injuries and teeth being knocked out.

The study found that isolation also made the problem far worse for those facing homelessness in rural areas, where limited transport options and the absence of support placed them at greater risk. Those with physical or mental health needs were found to be most vulnerable.

Martin Collett, chief executive of English Rural and co-chair of the research project, said: 

‘This research shines a spotlight on a growing rural crisis hidden in plain sight. You see here the brutal reality beyond the insufficient official statistics. People who have no chance of affording a basic standard of living through no fault of their own. You don’t tend to see people sleeping rough in rural areas – but they’re there, normally hidden in agricultural buildings, outhouses, sleeping rough on farmland or condemned to an insecure life of sofa surfing. Because funding is so inadequate, many people are moving to urban centres for much needed support. It is in all our interests to fix this crisis.

‘Rural homelessness is a significant problem, and a lack of support and funding for affordable homes and services in these areas puts vulnerable households at a distinct disadvantage. The findings of this research should drive a step change in our approach to the issue. Local and national leaders must come together to say clearly that ‘rural homelessness counts’.

Farmers were frequently cited as a lifeline by those experiencing rural homelessness, allowing people to pitch tents in their fields and providing clean water and cups of tea in the morning. But some farmers expressed frustration at regulations they said prevented them from allowing rough sleepers to stay on their land, for fear of being criminalised by local authorities.

Tom Fyans, interim chief executive of CPRE, the countryside charity, said:  

‘Farmers caring for people sleeping rough in their fields is a shocking indictment of government indifference. This is a political choice being paid for by our most vulnerable. It shouldn’t be this way, but chronic underfunding and years of slashed budgets means there is no longer a social safety net in the countryside.

‘In many cases, the homelessness crisis in rural areas is hidden by the kindness of others. It’s very generous, and no doubt welcome, but contributes to the true scale of the crisis going unreported.

‘Hard working people are falling through the cracks of a broken system and the government must take responsibility. We need immediate action to fix a growing affordable housing crisis that, in one of the richest countries in the world, is nothing short of a national disgrace.’ 

Graham Biggs, Chief Executive of the RSN who were one of the commissioning partners for the research, said:

‘Yet again rural areas are underfunded compared to urban areas, and this has significant impacts for the services that can be provided.  These services support some of the most vulnerable in our communities who should not be left in such a desperate situation.

‘The Rural Services Network supports the recommendations in the report and calls for fair funding for our rural communities.’ 

The coalition is calling for local and national leaders to make a clear commitment that ‘rural homelessness counts’. They are recommending:

  • All future homelessness and rough sleeping strategies consider the needs of rural communities and ‘at risk’ residents living in them.
  • Improved processes for better counting and identifying instances of rural homelessness.
  • Delivering new homelessness support services in rural communities that address mental health and social and physical isolation.
  • Dedicated investment to fund much needed rural social housing and increasing funding through the welfare system to cover the cost of rent.

Download a copy of 'Homelessness in the Countryside: A Hidden Crisis' here 

You can download a copy of the infographic associated with this report by clicking on the image below:

This research featured in the Independent and this article can be viewed here

This research has been commissioned by a rural homelessness task force co-chaired by Martin Collett and Rory Weal, bringing together experts from organisations listed below. Further project funding was made available by the University of Kent.

English Rural Housing Association 
CPRE The countryside charity 
National Housing Federation 
Homeless Link 
Hastoe Housing Association 
Action with Communities in Rural England (ACRE) 
The Rural Services Network 
Citizen Housing 
Trent and Dove Housing
The Rural Housing Alliance 
Church of England Public Policy Team
Susan Eastoe 
Jo Richardson, Prof. of Housing & Social Inclusion, DMU, Leicester

Research team: 

Dr. Carin Tunåker, University of Kent, principal investigator 
Prof. Helen Carr, University of Southampton, co-investigator 
Laura Burke, University of Kent, researcher 
Guillermo Reyes-Pascual, University of Kent, researcher


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